Biological Name: Acanthopanacis gracilistyliradicis
Other Names: acanthopanax, wu jia pi
Parts Used: Root bark
Antirheumatic, diuretic, circulatory stimulant
This herb is closely related to Siberian ginseng and is believed to be very useful for the circulation of blood and qi. It also relieves fluid stagnation. Thus, it is useful for the elderly and for underdeveloped or slow-to-develop children. It is effective for chronic rheumatic and arthritic conditions caused by cold, wind, and dampness and for weakness of the bones and sinews.
Dosage: 3-12 grams
Preparation: Soak 30 grams of the herb in a 1/2 quart of strong spirits, such as vodka or gin. Take a teaspoon 3 times daily.
This herb should not be used when there is yin deficiency with heat signs.
Biological Name: Aconitum falconeri
Other Names: Aconite, Monk's Hood, Vatsnabh, Midhavis
Bis, Bikh, Meetha-tellia
CAUTION: POISONOUS WITHOUT PROPER PURIFICATION. THE ROOT IS NOT USED INTERNALLY WITH HEART DISEASE. MAY CAUSE SEVERE HEADACHES. USE ONLY WITH THE ADVICE AND SUPERVISION OF AN AYURVEDIC EXPERT. NOT RECOMMENDED.
Small doses: anodyne, antidiabetic, antiperiodic, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, diuretic.
Large doses: poison, sedative, narcotic
Tincture, extract from fresh leaves and flower tops; external liniment, poultice, homeopathic formula
CAUTION: POISONOUS WITHOUT PROPER PURIFICATION. THE ROOT IS NOT USED INTERNALLY WITH HEART DISEASE. MAY CAUSE SEVERE HEADACHES. USE ONLY WITH THE ADVICE OF AN AYURVEDIC EXPERT. NOT RECOMMENDED.
Scientific name : Agrimonia eupatoria L.
Other names: Church steeples, Cocklebur, Philanthropos, Stickwort
Family: Rose family – Rosaceae
Agrimony is a pretty plant with spikes of tiny yellow flowers (church steeples) and fruit with hooked bristles at the top (cockleburs). It grows wild by roadsides, fields and woods. Although the plant has no narcotic properties, tradition holds that when placed under a person’s head, agrimony will induce a deep sleep that will remain till the plant is removed.
Folklore aside, Agrimony has long history of medical use. The English poet Michael Drayton once hailed it as an “all-heal,” and through the ages it did seem to be a panacea. The ancient Greeks used Agrimony to treat eye ailments, and it was made into brew to cure diarrhea and disorders of the gall bladder, liver and kidneys. Anglo-Saxons made a solution from the leaves and seeds for healing wounds; this use continued through the Middle Ages and afterward, in a preparation called eau d’ arquebusade, or “musket shot water”. Later, agrimony was prescribed for athlete’s foot. In the United States and Canada, late into the 19th Century, the plant was prescribed for many of these ills and more: for skin diseases, asthma, coughs, and gynecological complaints, and as gargle for sore throat.
Habitat:Roadsides, waste grounds. Fields, woods Range: Native to Europe, agrimony is cultivated in much of the United States and Southern Canada. Identification: A perennial, growing 2-3 feet high, with an upright mature brown stem covered with soft, silky hairs. The hairy leaves are alternate and pinnately divided, with coarsely toothed leaflets. At the top of the stem grow numerous small yellow flowers (July –August) in log spikes, the blooms opening one above the other. Hooked bristles at the upper end of the burlike fruit stick to clothing and animal fur. Uses: Agrimony’s medicinal properties as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and astringent are all due to the presence of large quantities of tannin in the plant. Herbalists today use the flowering stem tips and dries leaves as a tonic and diuretic and digestive disorders including diarrhea. The plant is also applied to slow healing wounds. Agrimony is an ingredient of herb teas.
Aloe Vera - The Healing Plant
Aloe Vera is a plant of many surprises and wonders. Whether you use it as vital ingredient in beauty products or it is consumed as dietary supplement. Aloe Vera is a hot fertile region plant, but now it is cultivated in most part of the world. Aloe is a member of the lily family although it looks more of a cactus. It has been used for its medicinal purposes since the ancient times, but only recently has it enjoyed a rediscovery and subsequent popularity explosion.
There are over 200 varieties of aloes, but it is the Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) plant, which has been of most use to mankind because of the medicinal properties it displays. Aloe Vera contains over 75 known active ingredients including a wide range Vitamins, antioxidant, minerals, calcium, essential Amino Acids, Sugars, Digestive Enzymes, Anti-inflammatory Enzymes, Plant Sterols, Lignin, Saponins, Anthraquinones and more. Aloe Vera contains many components, including vitamins A, B, C, and E. Aloe has a massive amount of minerals and enzymes, however not its entire component has been identified yet.
Nowadays, although medicines and drugs can be very effective in treating ailments, long term use often involves side effects for patients. Consequently more consumers and scientists are turning back to look at more traditional, and often natural therapies which have been neglected for so long. As a result, Aloe Vera is once again attracting attention as it can provide many benefits to our health and lifestyle without any side effects.
BENEFITS OF ALOE VERA
Ancient records show that the benefits of Aloe Vera have been known to mankind for centuries. Its therapeutic advantages and healing properties have survived more than 5000 years.
By using the aloe vera juice a person can get the benefits of aloe vera’s ability to aid in digestion, improve circulation, detoxify and heal from the inside. Aloe Vera juice can be a part of a person’s daily healthy regimen because it is safe to take everyday. If Aloe is taken internally, it increases the actual amount of our bile. It affects the small intestines and stimulates the muscular coat of the large intestine thus causing purging in about fifteen hours. Aloes also help increase the menstrual flow, since it belongs to the group of emmenagogues. Aloes have Aloin present used for therapeutic purposes. This causes less pain. It is a preferable drug for many forms of constipation. Continuous use of it does not lead to enlarging the dose to take.
Aloe’s benefits to our health include, helping to lower the blood sugar levels in diabetes patients. Aloe Vera is a strong laxative that may have some anti-cancer effects to humans. It is now being studied as a treatment for asthma.
USES OF ALOE VERA
Aloe Vera is commonly used externally to treat various skin conditions such as cuts, burns and echzema. It is alleged that sap from Aloe vera eases pain and reduces inflammation. Scientific evidence on the effects of Aloe vera sap on wound healing is contradictory. A study showed that the healing of a moderate to severe burn was sped up by six days when covering the wound on a regular basis with aloe vera gel, compared to the healing of the wound covered in a gauze bandage. In contrast, another study suggested wounds to which Aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal.
Many cosmetic companies add sap or products derived from Aloe Vera to products such as makeup, shampoos, soaps, moisturisers, sunscreens and lotions. Aloe gel is alleged to be useful for dry skin conditions, especially eczema around the eyes and sensitive facial skin and for treating fungal infections.Aloe vera has very good results in skin diseases and it is often taken as health drink. Aloe Vera is also found effective in treating wrinkles, stretch marks and pigmentations. Where as auravedic practitioners are in the favor of use of Aloe Vera. According to them Aloe vera has very good role in diabetic. Aloe vera is found to have smaller molecular structure and cutting properties. This help breaking down fat globules, therefore reducing obesity. Medical properties of Aloe vera are still on debate, but the beauty properties are highly accepted by the world.
Aloe Vera is also known to have certain medical properties. Aloe vera drink is used as a tonic for patient suffering from arthritis, diabetes and high cholesterol. This is because of the dietary supplement properties, which help in healing like anti fungal, anti oxidant, anti bacterial and some other properties. It is found to boost the immune system. The transparent gel that is found inside its leaf is used as a domestic emergency treatment in burns, injuries and solar erithema, also it is applied externally on hemorrhoids and foe a good cicatrisation. Aloe Vera contains at least two active compounds that decrease the levels of sugar in the blood and its extract is also used in patients with hypoglycemia. Its juice is consumed as prevention and treatment of many gastric disorders. The efficiency of Aloe Vera in the treatment of burns is due because it has a similar structure as aspirin, that in combination with magnesium have an anesthetic effect and because of its antimicrobian composition it helps for the hygiene of the burns, avoiding a possible infection
An Unexpected Health Benefit of Eating Rhubarb
Eating Vegetables Rhubarb may not be the most popular vegetable on the produce stand, but it still makes a pretty tasty jam. Rhubarb lovers, take heart. This underappreciated vegetable may soon be getting the respect it deserves if the
results of a new study hold true. According to new research published in the journal Food Chemistry, rhubarb could be important in the fight against cancer.
The Health Benefits of Rhubarb: Does It Ward Off Cancer?
Researchers have discovered that British rhubarb has natural chemicals called polyphenols that may help destroy cancer cells. To best harness the effects of the cancer blasting polyphenols in this veggie, rhubarb needs to be exposed to heat '" by baking it in the oven. Researchers are hoping that the polyphenols found in British rhubarb can be used to create new anti-cancer drugs that will work when cancer cells become resistant to commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs.
Health Benefits of Rhubarb is Enhanced by Baking It
Most people think that eating vegetables raw is better for you. Not so in this case. The anti-cancer benefits of British rhubarb are enhanced by baking it in the oven for twenty minutes. Researchers are hoping the polyphenols in baked British rhubarb are powerful enough to stop the growth of leukemia cells so that new drugs can be developed in the fight against this deadly form of cancer.
Other Health Benefits of Rhubarb: It's Nature's Laxative
Chinese medicine doctors have prescribed rhubarb for their patients who are constipated for many years. Rhubarb is a good source of compounds called anthraquinones that have natural laxative properties. Rhubarb is even available in an extract and as a capsule at many health food stores to be taken as a laxative.
Good for the Heart?
Another health benefit of rhubarb? It helps to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting certain enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis. Animal studies and small human studies have both shown this to be true.
Is Rhubarb Safe?
Some people have heard that rhubarb is poisonous. This is true '" but only the leaves '" not the stalks. Taking rhubarb extract as a laxative or for lowering cholesterol levels does have some side effects. Rhubarb
extract can interact with certain medications '" particularly heart and blood pressure medications. Rhubarb is also high in oxalates which can increase the risk of kidney stones in people who are susceptible to them.
Health Benefits of Rhubarb: The Bottom Line
British rhubarb and the natural compounds it contains may one day help in the battle against cancer. In the meantime, rhubarb is not only a good laxative, but may help to lower cholesterol levels as well. Add a little baked rhubarb to your diet if you don't have kidney stones, but hold off on taking rhubarb extract unless you get the okay from your doctor.
Species: A. archangelica
Also know as: Wild celery,
masterwort (in China), dang-
Parts used: Roots, leaves, seeds
Angelica Root Extract 1 FL Oz
Extract 1 FL Oz
Angelica Extract 1 Oz
Extract 1 Oz
Eclectic's Angelica O 1oz
Gentian - Angelica Bitters 1 Oz with Alcohol
1 Oz with Alcohol
Angelica supplements are useful as an expectorant for respiratory problems such as; asthma, bronchitis, coughs and pleurisy, especially when accompanied by colds, fever or flu.
It also eases intestinal colic and flatulence, stimulates appetite and may be used in anorexia nervosa. It is helpful in easing rheumatic inflammations and acts as a urinary antiseptic in cystitis.
It contains a variety of chemicals which have medicinal actions. Research reveals several health benefits of angelica extract and supports a few of the traditional uses for this long respected herb. These researchers also found that angelica relaxes the intestines, supporting its use to maintain digestive complaints.
Chewing on angelica or drinking tea brewed from it will cause local anesthesia. It has been shown to be effective against various bacteria, fungal and even viral infections. Externally, angelica can be used as a poultice for eyes, and as a hot compress for gout.
Japanese researchers reported that this herb has anti-inflammatory effects used in treating arthritis. And research from China reports suggest this herb increases red blood cell counts. This could prove to be beneficial in treating anemia. They also reported it increases the ability to clot blood. This is good news for people with clotting impairments, however, anyone at risk for heart disease should avoid this herb.
As with all herbal nutrition supplements, angelica supplements should only be used in amounts typically recommended for medicinal purposes and you should always consult with a health professional first, especially if you are pregnant, nursing or taking prescription medications.
It is unique for its pervading aromatic odor, a pleasant perfume, entirely differing from fennel, parsley, anise, caraway, or chervil.
Angelica roots are poisonous. Thoroughly drying them eliminates the hazard. Herb gardeners should always be sure roots are dry before using them. In the wild this herb resembles the herb, water hemlock, an extremely poisonous plant. They are very easy to confuse.
CHEMICAL & NUTRIENT CONTENT:
Vitamins A, B1, B2 (thiamin), B3 (niacin), folic acid (B9), B12, E, fructose, glucose, sucrose, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc.
Angelica grows to the height of 8 feet and resembles celery. It is biennial. It grows from seeds or root divisions. Germination could take a month. Sow it in the fall or spring ½ inch deep in well prepared beds. Allow 2 feet in each direction. It thrives in rich, moist, well drained, slightly acidic soil in partial shade.
Other herbs with anti-asthmatic actions include astragalus, black cohosh, coltsfoot, comfrey, mullein, and tea.
---Habitat---It is a native of Egypt, Greece, Crete and Asia Minor and was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. It was well known to the Greeks, being mentioned by Dioscorides and Pliny and was cultivated in Tuscany in Roman times. In the Middle Ages its cultivation spread to Central Europe.
---Description---Anise is a dainty, white-flowered urnbelliferous annual, about 18 inches high, with secondary feather-like leaflets of bright green, hence its name (of mediaeval origin), Pimpinella, from dipinella, or twicepinnate, in allusion to the form of the leaves.
---History---In this country Anise has been in use since the fourteenth century, and has been cultivated in English gardens from the middle of the sixteenth century, but it ripens its seeds here only in very warm summers, and it is chiefly in warmer districts that it is grown on a commercial scale, Southern Russia, Bulgaria, Germany, Malta, Spain, Italy, North Africa and Greece producing large quantities. It has also been introduced into India and South America. The cultivated plant attains a considerably larger size than the wild one.
In the East Anise was formerly used with other spices in part payment of taxes. 'Ye pay tithe of Mint, Anise and Cummin,' we read in the 23rd chapter of St. Matthew, but some authorities state that Anise is an incorrect rendering and should have been translated 'Dill.'
In Virgil's time, Anise was used as a spice. Mustacae, a spiced cake of the Romans introduced at the end of a rich meal, to prevent indigestion, consisted of meal, with Anise, Cummin and other aromatics. Such a cake was sometimes brought in at the end of a marriage feast, and is, perhaps, the origin of our spiced wedding cake.
On the Continent, especially in Germany, many cakes have an aniseed flavouring, and Anise is also used as a flavouring for soups.
It is largely employed in France, Spain Italy and South America in the preparation of cordial liqueurs. The liqueur Anisette added to cold water on a hot summer's day, makes a most refreshing drink.
Anise is one of the herbs that was supposed to avert the Evil Eye.
The oil extracted from the seed is said to prove a capital bait for mice, if smeared on traps. It is poisonous to pigeons.
Turner's Herbal, 1551, says that 'Anyse maketh the breth sweter and swageth payne.' 'The seeds,' says Delamer, Kitchen Garden, 1861, 'are much used by distillers to give flavour to cordial liqueurs.' Anisette is a liqueur flavoured with aniseed. Langham, Garden Health, 1683, says: 'For the dropsie, fill an old cock with Polipody and Aniseeds and seethe him well, and drink the broth.' The leaves are useful for seasoning some dishes. The essential oil of Anise is a good preventive of mould in paste. The ground seeds form an ingredient of sachet powders.
---Cultivation----Sow the seed in dry, light soil, on a warm, sunny border, early in April, where the plants are to remain. When they come up, thin them and keep them clean from weeds. Allow about a foot each way. The seeds may also be sown in pots in heat and removed to a warm site in May.
The seeds will ripen in England in good seasons if planted in a warm and favourable situation, though they are not successful everywhere, and can hardly be looked upon as a remunerative crop. The plant flowers in July, and if the season prove warm, will ripen in autumn, when the plants are cut down and the seeds threshed out.
---Part Used---The fruit, or so-called seeds. When threshed out, the seeds may be easily dried in trays, in a current of air in half-shade, out-of-doors, or by moderate heat. When dry, they are greyish brown, ovate, hairy, about one-fifth of an inch long, with ten crenate ribs and often have the stalk attached. They should be free from earthy matter. The taste is sweet and spicy, and the odour aromatic and agreeable.
The commercial varieties differ considerably in size, but the larger varieties alone are official. The Spanish Anise, sold as Alicante Anise, are the largest and the best adapted for pharmaceutical use, yielding about 3 per cent. of oil. Russian and German fruits are smaller and darker and are the variety generally used for distillation of the volatile oil. Italian Anise is frequently adulterated with Hemlock fruit.
---Constituents---Anise fruit yields on distillation from 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. of a fragrant, syrupy, volatile oil, of which anethol, present to about 90 per cent., is the principal aromatic constituent. It has a strong Anise odour and separates in the form of shining white crystalline scales on cooling the oil. Other constituents of the fruit are a fixed oil, choline, sugar and mucilage.
Oil of Anise, distilled in Europe from the fruits of Pimpinella anisum, Anise, and in China from the fruits of Illicium anisatum, Star Anise, a small tree indigenous to China, is colourless, or very pale yellow, with taste and odour like the fruit. The oils obtainable from these two fruits are identical in composition, and nearly the same in most of their characters, but that from Star Anise fruit congeals at a lower temperature. The powdered drug from Star Anise is administered in India as a substitute for the official fruit, and the oil is employed for its aromatic, carminative and stimulant properties. The bulk of the oil in commerce is obtained from the Star Anise fruit in China. The fruits are also often imported into France and the oil extracted there. Chinese Anise oil is harsh in taste.
---Medicinal Action and Uses---Carminative and pectoral. Anise enjoys considerable reputation as a medicine in coughs and pectoral affections. In hard, dry coughs where expectoration is difficult, it is of much value. It is greatly used in the form of lozenges and the seeds have also been used for smoking, to promote expectoration.
The volatile oil, mixed with spirits of wine forms the liqueur Anisette, which has a beneficial action on the bronchial tubes, and for bronchitis and spasmodic asthma, Anisette, if administered in hot water, is an immediate palliative.
For infantile catarrh, Aniseed tea is very helpful. It is made by pouring half a pint of boiling water on 2 teaspoonsful of bruised seed. This, sweetened, is given cold in doses of 1 to 3 teaspoonsful frequently.
'Aniseed helpeth the yeoxing or hicket (hiccough) and should be given to young children to eat, which are like to have the falling sickness (epilepsy), or to/such as have it by patrimony or succession.'
The stimulant and carminative properties of Anise make it useful in flatulency and colic. It is used as an ingredient of cathartic and aperient pills, to relieve flatulence and diminish the griping of purgative medicines, and may be given with perfect safety in convulsions. For colic, the dose is 10 to 30 grains of bruised or powdered seeds infused in distilled water, taken in wineglassful doses, or 4 to 20 drops of the essential oil on sugar. For the restlessness of languid digestion, a dose of essence of aniseed in hot water at bedtime is much commended.
In the Paregoric Elixir (Compound Tincture of Camphor), prescribed as a sedative cordial by doctors, oil of Anise is also included - 30 drops in a pint of the tincture.
Anise oil is a good antiseptic and is used, mixed with oil of Peppermint or Gaultheria (Wintergreen) to flavour aromatic liquid dentrifrices.
Oil of Anise is used also against insects especially when mixed with oil of Sassafras and Carbolic oil.
Anti-aging Properties of Walnuts
When it comes to rejuvenating brain functions for the elderly, there's hardly any better thing than walnuts. Rich in Omega-3 fatty acids that vastly improve the functioning of the brain cells, walnuts are must as an anti-aging ingredient to improve memory, relieve depression and improve cognitive functions.
Walnuts are miracle gifts of Nature. Aging naturally slows down the flow of blood in the arteries that puts the heart under pressure to keep blood circulating throughout the body. Studies have shown that walnuts with their rich reserves of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) plus Omega-3 fatty acids improve artery function and heart health, which is a definite advantage from the perspective of anti-aging.
Another important anti-aging property of walnut is its capacity to improve sleep. Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal glands regulates sleep inside the body. Its secretion declines naturally with aging. That is why aging people have reduced sleep. Walnut is an excellent source of bio-available melatonin and can vastly improve sleep in people, both in terms of quality and hours of sleep. So if you want a good night's sleep everyday, don't forget your daily recipe of steamed vegetables, green salads or fruit salad tossed with a handful of walnuts.
Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant that makes walnuts an excellent source to check cellular decay that happens due to free radical hits. Studies have shown that taking walnuts regularly considerably minimizes risk of many life-threatening diseases that develop from cellular decay. Walnuts also improve bone health that is so crucial for the elderly. Just four walnuts a day, and you can enjoy a longer, happier and younger life, the simplest possible way.
The Apple is a fruit of the temperate zones and only reaches perfection in their cooler regions. It is a fruit of long descent and in the Swiss lake-dwellings small apples have been found, completely charred but still showing the seed-valves and the grain of the flesh. It exists in its wild state in most countries of Europe and also in the region of the Caucasus: in Norway, it is found in the lowlands as far north as Drontheim.
The Crab-tree or Wild Apple (Pyrus malus), is native to Britain and is the wild ancestor of all the cultivated varieties of apple trees. It was the stock on which were grafted choice varieties when brought from Europe, mostly from France. Apples of some sort were abundant before the Norman Conquest and were probably introduced into Britain by the Romans. Twenty-two varieties were mentioned by Pliny: there are now about 2,000 kinds cultivated. In the Old Saxon manuscripts there are numerous mentions of apples and cider. Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose Encyclopedia was one of the earliest printed books containing botanical information (being printed at Cologne about 1470), gives a chapter on the Apple. He says:
'Malus the Appyll tree is a tree yt bereth apples and is a grete tree in itself. . . it is more short than other trees of the wood wyth knottes and rinelyd Rynde. And makyth shadowe wythe thicke bowes and branches: and fayr with dyurs blossomes, and floures of swetnesse and Iykynge: with goode fruyte and noble. And is gracious in syght and in taste and vertuous in medecyne . . . some beryth sourysh fruyte and harde, and some ryght soure and some ryght swete, with a good savoure and mery.'
The Crab-tree is a small tree of general distribution in Britain south of Perthshire. In most respects it closely resembles the cultivated Apple of the orchard differing chiefly only in the size and flavour of the fruit. Well-grown specimens are not often met with, as in woods and copses it is cramped by other trees and seldom attains any considerable height, 30-foot specimens being rare and many being mere bushes. Those found in hedgerows have often sprung from the seeds of orchard apples that have reverted to ancestral type. The branches of the Crab-tree become pendant, with long shoots which bear the leaves and flowers. The leaves are dark green and glossy and the flowers, in small clusters on dwarf shoots are produced in April and May. The buds are deeply tinged with pink on the outside the expanded flowers an inch and a half across, and when the trees are in full bloom, they are a beautiful sight.
The blossoms, by their delightful fragrance and store of nectar, attract myriads of bees, and as a result of the fertilization effected by these visitors in their search for the buried nectar, the fruit develops and becomes in autumn the beautiful little Crab Apple, which when ripe is yellow or red in colour and measures about an inch across. It has a very austere and acid juice, in consequence of which it cannot be eaten in the raw condition, but a delicious jelly is made from it, which is always welcome on the table, and the fruit can also be used for jammaking, with blackberries, pears or quinces. In Ireland, it is sometimes added to cider, to impart a roughness. The fruit in some varieties is less acid than in others: in the variety in which the fruit hangs down from the shoots, the little apples are exceedingly acid, but in another kind, they stand more or less erect on their stalks and these are so much less acid as to give almost a suggestion of sweetness. The fruit of the Siberian Crab, or Cherry-apple, grown as an ornamental tree, makes also a fine preserve.
Cider Apples may be considered as a step in development from the Wild Apple to the Dessert Apple. Formerly every farmhouse made its cider. The apples every autumn were tipped in heaps on the straw-strewn floor of the pound house, a building of cob, covered with thatch, in which stood the pounder and the press and vats and all hands were busy for days preparing the golden beverage. This was the yearly process - still carried out on many farms of the west of England, though cider-making is becoming more and more a product of the factories. One of the men turned the handle of the pounder, while a boy tipped in the apples at the top. A pounder is a machine which crushes the apples between two rollers with teeth in them. The pulp and juice are then taken to the press in large shovels which have high sides and are scored bright by the acid. The press is a huge square tray with a lip in the centre of the front side and its floor slopes towards this opening. On either side are huge oaken supports on which rests a square baulk of the same wood. Through this works a large screw. Under the timber is the presser Directly the pulp is ready, the farmer starts to prepare the 'cheese.' First of all goes a layer of straw, then a layer of apples, and so on until the 'cheese' is a yard high, and sometimes more. Then the ends of straw which project are turned up to the top of the heap. Now the presser is wound down and compresses the mound until the clear juice runs freely. Under the lip in the front of the cider press is put a vat. The juice is dipped from this into casks. In four months' time the cider will be ready to drink.
The demand for cider has increased rapidly of late years, chiefly on account of the dry varieties being so popular with sufferers from rheumatism and gout. As very good prices have been paid in recent seasons for the best cider apples, and as eight tons per acre is quite an average crop from a properly-managed orchard in full bearing, it is obvious to all progressive and up-to-date farmers and apple-growers that this branch of agriculture is well worthy of attention. In the last few years, with the object of encouraging this special Applegrowing industry, silver cups have been awarded to the owners of cider-apple orchards in Devon who make the greatest improvement in the cultivation of their orchards during the year, and it is hoped this will still further stimulate the planting of new orchards and the renovation of the old ones.
The peculiar winy odour is stimulating to many. Pliny, and later, Sir John Mandeville, tell of a race of little men in 'Farther India' who 'eat naught and live by the smell of apples.' Burton wrote that apples are good against melancholy and Dr. John Caius, physician to Queen Elizabeth, in his Boke of Counseille against the Sweatynge Sicknesse advises the patient to 'smele to an old swete apple to recover his strengthe.' An apple stuck full of cloves was the prototype of the pomander, and pomatum (now used only in a general sense) took its name from being first made of the pulp of apples, lard and rosewater.
In Shakespeare's time, apples when served at dessert were usually accompanied by caraway, as we may read in Henry IV, where Shallow invites Falstaff to 'a pippin and a dish of caraway,' In a still earlier Booke of Nurture, it is directed 'After mete pepyns, caraway in comfyts.' The custom of serving roast apples with a little saucerful of Carraways is still kept up at Trinity College, Cambridge, and at some of the old-fashioned London Livery dinners, just as in Shakespeare's days.
The taste for apples is one of the earliest and most natural of inclinations; all children love apples, cooked or uncooked. Apple pies, apple puddings, apple dumplings are fare acceptable in all ages and all conditions.
Apple cookery is very early English: Piers Ploughman mentions 'all the povere peple' who 'baken apples broghte in his lappes' and the ever popular apple pie was no less esteemed in Tudor times than it is to-day, only our ancestors had some predilections in the matter of seasonings that might not now appeal to all of us, for they put cinnamon and ginger in their pies and gave them a lavish colouring of saffron.
Apple Moyse is an old English confection, no two recipes for which seem to agree. One Black Letter volume tells us to take a dozen apples, roast or boil them, pass them through a sieve with the yolks of three or four eggs, and as they are strained temper them with three or four spoonfuls of damask (rose) water; season them with sugar and half a dish of sweet butter, and boil them in a chafing dish and cast biscuits or cinnamon and ginger upon them.
Halliwell says, upon one authority, that apple moyse was made from apples after they had been pressed for cider, and seasoned with spices.
Probably the American confection, Apple Butter, is an evolution of the old English dish? Apple butter is a kind of jam made of tart apples, boiled in cider until reduced to a very thick smooth paste, to which is added a flavouring of allspice, while cooking. It is then placed in jars and covered tightly.
The once-popular custom of wassailing the orchard-trees' on Christmas Eve, or the Eve of the Epiphany, is not quite extinct even yet in a few remote places in Devonshire. More than three centuries ago Herrick mentioned it among his 'Ceremonies of Christmas Eve':
'Wassaile the trees, that they may beare
You many a Plum and many a Peare:
For more or lesse fruits they will bring,
As you do give them Wassailing.'
The ceremony consisted in the farmer, with his family and labourers, going out into the orchard after supper, bearing with them a jug of cider and hot cakes. The latter were placed in the boughs of the oldest or best bearing trees in the orchard, while the cider was flung over the trees after the farmer had drunk their health in some such fashion as the following:
'Here's to thee, old apple-tree!
Whence thou may'st bud, and whence thou may'st blow,
Hats full! Caps full!
Bushel - bushel-bags full!
And my pockets full too! Huzza!'
The toast was repeated thrice, the men and boys often firing off guns and pistols, and the women and children shouting loudly.
Roasted apples were usually placed in the pitcher of cider, and were thrown at the trees with the liquid. Trees that were bad bearers were not honoured with wassailing but it was thought that the more productive ones would cease to bear if the rite were omitted. It is said to have been a relic of the heathen sacrifices to Pomona. The custom also prevailed in Somersetshire and Dorsetshire.
Roast apples, or crabs, formed an indispensable part of the old-fashioned 'wassailbowl,' or 'good brown bowl," of our ancestors.
'And sometime lurk I in a gossip's bowl
In very likeness of a roasted Crab'
Puck relates in Midsummer's Night's Dream.
The mixture of hot spiced ale, wine or cider, with apples and bits of toast floating in it was often called 'Lamb's wool,' some say from its softness, but the word is really derived from the Irish 'la mas nbhal,' 'the feast of the apple-gathering' (All Hallow Eve), which being pronounced somewhat like 'Lammas-ool,' was corrupted into 'lamb's wool.' It was usual for each person who partook of the spicy beverage to take out an apple and eat it, wishing good luck to the company.
Various analyses show that the Apple contains from 80 to 85 per cent. of water, about 5 per cent. of proteid or nitrogenous material, from 10 to 15 per cent. of carbonaceous matter, including starch and sugar, from 1 to 1.5 per cent. of acids and salts. The sugar content of a fresh apple varies from 6 to 10 per cent., according to the variety. In spite of the large proportion of water, the fresh Apple is rich in vitamins, and is classed among the most valuable of the anti-scorbutic fruits for relieving scurvy. All apples contain a varying amount of the organic acids, malic acid and gallic acid, and an abundance of salts of both potash and soda, as well as salts of lime, magnesium, and iron.
It has been calculated that in 100 grams of dried apples, there are contained 1.7 milligrams of iron in sweet varieties and 2.1 milligrams in sour varieties. It has also been proved by analysis that the Apple contains a larger quantity of phosphates than any other vegetable or fruit.
The valuable acids and salt of the Apple exist to a special degree in and just below the skin, so that, to get the full value of an apple, it should be eaten unpeeled.
The bark of the Apple-tree which is bitter, especially the root-bark, contains a principle called Phloridzin, and a yellow colouring matter, Quercetin, both extracted by boiling water. The seeds give Amygdaline and an edible oil.
Apple oil is Amyl Valerate or Amylvaleric Ester. An alcoholic solution has been used as a flavouring liquid, called Apple Essence.
Fresh apple-juice is employed for the N.F. Ferrated Extract of Apples.
The chief dietetic value of apples lies in the malic and tartaric acids. These acids are of signal benefit to persons of sedentary habits, who are liable to liver derangements, and they neutralize the acid products of gout and indigestion. 'An apple a day keeps the doctor away' is a respectable old rhyme that has some reason in it.
The acids of the Apple not only make the fruit itself digestible, but even make it helpful in digesting other foods. Popular instinct long ago led to the association of apple sauce with such rich foods as pork and goose, and the old English fancy for eating apple pie with cheese, an obsolete taste, nowadays, is another example of instinctive inclination, which science has approved.
The sugar of a sweet apple, like most fruit sugars, is practically a predigested food, and is soon ready to pass into the blood to provide energy and warmth for the body.
A ripe raw apple is one of the easiest vegetable substances for the stomach to deal with, the whole process of its digestion being completed in eighty-five minutes.
The juice of apples, without sugar, will often reduce acidity of the stomach; it becomes changed into alkaline carbonates, and thus corrects sour fermentation.
It is stated on medical authority that in countries where unsweetened cider is used as a common beverage, stone or calculus is unknown, and a series of inquiries made of doctors in Normandy, where cider is the principal drink, brought to light the fact that not a single case of stone had been met with during forty years.
Ripe, juicy apples eaten at bedtime every night will cure some of the worst forms of constipation. Sour apples are the best for this purpose. Some cases of sleeplessness have been cured in this manner. People much inclined to biliousness will find this practice very valuable. In some cases stewed apples will agree perfectly well, while raw ones prove disagreeable. There is a very old saying:
'To eat an apple going to bed
Will make the doctor beg his bread.'
The Apple will also act as an excellent dentifrice, being a food that is not only cleansing to the teeth on account of its juices, but just hard enough to mechanically push back the gums so that the borders are cleared of deposits.
Rotten apples used as a poultice is an old Lincolnshire remedy for sore eyes, that is still in use in some villages.
It is no exaggeration to say that the habitual use of apples will do much to prolong life and to ameliorate its conditions. In the Edda, the old Scandinavian saga, Iduna kept in a box, apples that she gave to the gods to eat, thereby to renew their youth.
A French physician has found that the bacillus of typhoid fever cannot live long in apple juice, and therefore recommends doubtful drinking water to be mixed with cider.
A glucoside in small crystals is obtainable from the bark and root of the apple, peach and plum, which is said to induce artificial diabetes in animals, and thus can be used in curing it in human beings.
The original pomatum seems to date from Gerard's days, when an ointment for roughness of the skin was made from apple pulp, swine's grease, and rosewater.
The astringent verjuice, rich in tannin, of the Crab, is helpful in chronic diarrhoea.
The bark may be used in decoction for intermittent and bilious fevers.
Cider in which horse-radish has been steeped has been found helpful in dropsy.
Cooked apples make a good local application for sore throat in fevers, inflammation of the eyes, erysipelas, etc.
Stewed apples are laxative; raw ones not invariably so.
---Dosages---Of infusion of the bark, 1 to 4 fluid ounces. Of phloridzin, 5 to 20 grains.
APPLE OF SODOM (Solanum sosomeum). This is a prickly species found near the Dead Sea, full of dust when ripe, the result of insects' eggs deposited in the young fruit. Some regard the name as referring to Colocynth, and others again to Calatropis procera.
ADAM'S APPLE is a variety of the Lime (Citrus limetta). Superstition relates that a piece of the forbidden apple stuck in Adam's throat, and his descendants ever after had the lump in the front of the neck which is so named.
MAY APPLE. American Mandrake, Racoonberry, Hog-apple, Devil's Apple, Indian Apple, or Wild Lemon, a purgative used in liver complaints.
THORN-APPLE. Datura stramonium, Jamestown Weed, Stinkweed, or Apple of Peru has narcotic, anodyne leaves and seeds.
CUSTARD APPLES, or Annonas, grow in hotter countries than common apples. Several species are edible, especially Annona tripetela, A. squamosa and A. glabra. A. palustris of Jamaica, also called Shiningleaved Custard Apple or Alligator Apple, is said to be a strong narcotic. The wood is so soft that it is used for corks.
PINE APPLE is the fruit of Bromelia ananas, deriving its name from its pine-cone shape.
LOVE APPLE, or Tomato Plant, is the fruit of Solanum lycopersicum or Lycopersicum esculentum.
MAD, or JEW'S APPLE is the fruit of S. esculentum.
RED ASTRACEIAN APPLE is var. Astracanica of P. malus. Var. Paradisiaca and var. Pendula are also well-known.
Varieties of Crabs are Dartmouth or Hyslop, Fairy, John Downie, Orange, Transcendent and Transparent.
MALAY APPLE is the fruit of Eugenia malaccensis.
ROSE APPLE, or Jamrosade, is the fruit of E. jambos. The bark and seeds arc employed in diarrhoea and diabetes. Dose, of fluid extract, 10 minims or more, in hot water.
THE STAR APPLE (Chrysophyllum cainito) of the West Indies has an astringent, milky juice.
APPLE OF ACAJOU is a name of Anacardium occidentale, which yields a caustic oil used like croton oil. It is used in marking-ink. It also supplies a gum like gum-arabic.
CEDAR APPLES are excrescences on the trunk of Juniperus virginiana, used as an anthelmintic in the dose of from 10 to 20 grains three times a day.
ELEPHANT APPLE is the fruit of Feronia elephantum.
KANGAROO APPLE is the fruit of S. laciniatum.
KAU, or KEL APPLE is the South African name for the fruit of Abaria Kaffra.
MAMMEE APPLE is the fruit of Mammea americana.
MANDRAKE APPLE is the fruit of Mandragora officinalis.
MONKEY APPLE is the West Indian name for Clusia flava.
OAK-APPLES are spongy excrescences on the branches of oak-trees.
OATAHETTE APPLE is the fruit of Spondias dulcis.
PERSIAN APPLE is the name by which the peach was first known in Europe.
PRAIRIE APPLE is Psoralea esculenta.
WILD BALSAM APPLE is Ehinocystis lobata.
Plain Apple Marmalade, unspiced, is made by peeling, and coring and cutting up 12 lb. of apples and cooking very gently with 6 lb. of sugar and 1 quart of cider till the fruit is very soft. Then pour through a sieve and place in glass jars. This is delicious with cream as a sweet.
It is also possible to make a very delicious preserve called Apple Honey, by boiling apples slowly for a very long time without any addition of sugar. The people of Denmark make this in hayboxes, thus saving fuel. When cooked long enough it is thick and brown, and very sweet, and will keep any length of time.
Peel some nice-shaped firm apples, and for every 3 lb. allow 1 quart of vinegar, 4 lb. of sugar, 1 OZ. of stick cinnamon, and 1/2 oz. of cloves. Boil sugar, vinegar, and spices together, then put in the apples, and let them cook until tender. Put them into a jar; boil down the syrup quite thick, and pour it over. Cover and keep for a few months in a cool place.
4 lb. apples. 3 pt. water.
4 lb. sugar. 2 OZ. essence of ginger.
Boil sugar and water until they form a syrup. Add ginger. Pare, core and quarter apples, boil them in the syrup until transparent. Place in warm, clean, dry jars. Tie down at once.
Another recipe. 3 lb. of apples, 1/4 lb. of preserved ginger. Pare apples and cut up in small pieces. Put in a basin of water till required; then put skins and cores into preserving pan, cover with water and boil till tender; strain and measure juice. To 3 pints of juice allow 2 lb. of sugar. Take next the cut apples and weigh them. To every 3 lb. allow 2 lb. of sugar. Put apples, juice, sugar and ginger all together into pan, and boil till ready.
6 lb. apples (any kind).
Wipe and cut apples in four, remove bad parts. Place in preserving pan with lemon, well cover with water. Boil to a pulp. Place in a bag, allow to drip into a clean basin all night. Return to pan, adding 1 lb. sugar to each pint of juice. Boil for 3/4 hour or until jelly will set. Pour into clean, dry, warm jar. Tie down at once.
Cook the Crab-apples with 6 cloves and an inch of ginger until the fruit is soft. Strain, boil again and add 3/4 lb. of sugar to a pint of liquid. Let boil until it jells. To make a successful jelly, the fruit should not be cooked too long, and the sugar should be added just before the strained liquid boils.
Apples Stewed Whole
Take 6 large Red apples, wash carefully and put in a fruit kettle, with just enough boiling water to cover. Cover the kettle, and cook slowly until the apples are soft, with the skins broken and the juice a rich red colour. After removing the apples, boil the juice to a syrup, sweeten, and pour over the apples. A better plan is to make a syrup with sugar and water in which apples are stewed whole or sliced. Some add a clove, others the rind of lemon to improve the flavour.
Apples with Raisins
Pare, core, and quarter a dozen or more medium-sized apples. Clean thoroughly one fourth the weight of apples in raisins, and pour over them a quart of boiling water. Let them steep until well swollen, then add the apples, and cook until tender. Sugar to sweeten may be added if desired, although little will be needed unless the apples are very tart. Dried apples soaked overnight may be made much more palatable by stewing with raisins or English currants in the same way for about 40 minutes.
Cut apples into very thin slices, and lay between slices of bread and butter.
Apple and Egg Cream
Stew and strain 1 large tart apple, when cold add the well-beaten white of an egg. Serve with cream.
The following is an excellent recipe for a suitable drink for all fevers and feverish conditions:
Slice thinly 3 or 4 apples without peeling. Boil in a saucepan with a quart of water and a little sugar until the slices become soft. The apple water must then be strained and taken cold.
Mutton Baked with Apples and Onions
2 lb. of mutton cutlets from neck, salt,1 onion, 4 medium-sized apples. Prepare the meat by removing the bone and superfluous fat. Season with salt and lay in a baking dish. Cover the meat with finely-sliced sour apples and finely-chopped onions. Bake in a moderate oven until the meat is tender, which will be about 1 hour.
There is an old recipe for Apple Bread, wherein to the sponge was added one-third as much grated apple, which is perhaps worth reviving.
In some years, especially in a drought, the number of windfalls in the orchard is unusually large. They should never be allowed to lie on the ground, as most of them contain grubs which will hatch out into insect pests that ruin the fruit trees. But not a single windfall need be wasted. Those which are big enough to peel can be used for puddings or tarts. The small fruit can be used for making jelly, by cutting each in half so as to remove any grub that may be present, and then proceeding in the usual manner, as given above. The jelly will be a brilliant red colour, equal to Crab-apple Jelly in taste and appearance.
Excellent chutneys, syrups, and jams can also be made from windfalls, which curiously enough so many housewives use only for stewing and baking, neglecting less humdrum methods, of which there are quite a number, of using the fruit. We give a few recipes:
2 lb. of windfall apples, 4 oz. of brown sugar, 1 gill of water, a strip of lemon peel or z or 3 cloves or an inch of stick cinnamon, 1/2 pint of custard or cream.
Wash and wipe the fruit, remove any damaged portions, and cut into quarters without peeling or coring. Put it into a pan with the sugar, water, and flavouring, bring to the boil, and simmer until the fruit is soft. If too dry add a little more water. Rub through a sieve, and mix the puree with custard or cream.
Pears (windfall) or plums of any kind may be used in the same way, or apples and pears mixed.
Apple, Pear and Plum Jam
8 lb. of each fruit, 1/2, pint of cider, 1/4 oz. of powdered cloves (no sugar is required).
Cut the windfall apples and pears in quarters (do not peel or core), put into a preserving pan with the plums, and add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan. Bring to the boil, then simmer until soft. Press out all the juice by pouring the fruit on to a fine hair sieve. Strain the juice through muslin, and boil it quickly in an uncovered pan until thick like a syrup. Put the syrup into bottles and cork well. Tie bladder or run sealing wax over the corks, and store in a dry, cool place.
About 30 windfall apples, 2 OZ. of salt, 3/4 Ib. of brown sugar, 4 oz. of onions, 1 clove of garlic, 3 oz. of powdered ginger, 1/2 oz. of dried chillies, 1 OZ. of mustard seeds, 4 oz. of raisins, 1 quart of vinegar.
Peel, core and slice the apples, put them into a pan with the sugar and vinegar and simmer until the apples are soft. Wash the mustard seed with vinegar and dry in a cool oven. Stone and chop the raisins. Peel and slice the garlic and onions, slice the chillies and pound them all in a mortar with the ginger and mustard seeds. When the apples are soft add the rest of the ingredients and let the mixture become cold. Mix well and put into bottles. Cork and cover like jam.
Apples could become the next fish when it comes to boosting health. Omega 3 fatty acids are known for their health benefits. Vegetarians, environmentalists and consumers are warned about mercury and PCB’s in fish. Krill oil consumption could deplete other marine mammals of their food supply. Consider the health benefits of apples that can rival fish.
Apples could curb cancer
In March 2005 Cornell University scientists discovered that phytochemicals in apples could help prevent breast cancer, found in a mouse study. Study author Rui Hai Lui concluded eating apples “may be an effective strategy for cancer protection” Studies also suggest that apples can thwart lung, prostate, pancreatic and other digestive cancers.
Quercitin found in apples might even prevent lung damage in smokers, found by UCLA researchers and published May 2008. Dr. Zuo-Feng Zhang, a researcher at UCLA’s Jonsson Cancer Center and a professor of public health and epidemiology. “The findings were especially interesting because tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer. The naturally occurring chemicals may be working to reduce the damage caused by smoking.”
Apple juice could prevent Alzheimer’s disease
The health benefits of apples also extend to the brain. A study underwritten by the apple industry found that mice with Alzheimer’s disease and even normal mice experienced memory improvement from receiving apple juice concentrate in their water. Two to 3 glasses of apple juice a day should be enough and it’s important to combine apples with an otherwise balanced diet.
Professor Thomas Shea who conducted the study starting in 2002 says mice that drank too much apple juice “became bloated and lethargic”, negating the positive effects of apple juice for boosting memory.
Pectin in apples and other fruit may play a key role in lowering bad cholesterol, shown in several observational studies. Apples are also high in soluble fiber. The American Heart Association recommends soluble and insoluble fiber intake daily as part of a heart healthy diet. Apple pulp is a soluble and apple skin is an insoluble fiber. The Apple Association also published a study May 2008 suggesting that apple juice antioxidants might prevent atherosclerosis, found in a rodent study and published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Additional benefits include reducing the chances of metabolic syndrome that leads to diabetes and heart disease, reported by the U.S. Apple Association.
Apples keep infection at bay
This year, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign published findings that soluble fiber increased production of the anti-inflammatory protein called interleukin-4. The amount of soluble fiber needed to keep infection at bay – for instance from eating apples – is obtainable and not pharmaceutical. For the study researchers used citrus based pectin.
Apples are not a panacea
According to Gregory Freund, a professor in the University of Illinois’ College of Medicine and a faculty member in the College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences' Division of Nutritional Sciences, “It's possible that supplementing a high-fat diet with soluble fiber could reduce the negative effects of a high fat diet, “even delaying the onset of diabetes." Apples are an excellent source of soluble and insoluble fiber, making them an especially appealing addition to the diet.
Apples are not a panacea that can fight disease, but they do have a wide array of potential health benefits. It’s important to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables throughout the day. Added to a balanced, nutritious and heart healthy diet, apples might rival fish for their health benefits.
Name: Arjuna Myrobalan
Biological Name: Terminalia arjuna, Pentaptera glabra, Pentaptera angustifolia
Other Names: Arjun, Arjuna, Arjuna Myrobalan,
Arjuna-sadra, Attumarutu, Billimatti, Holematti, Kahu, Kukubha, Maochettu, Maruthu, Nirmaruthu, Rektarjuna, sadado,Sajadan, Sanmadat, Shardul, Tella-madoi, Tormatti, Vellai maruda-maram, Vella- marda, Yermaddi
Description: Important Ayurvedic herb from India.
The exact constitution of the bark is under dispute. It is possible that the different results reported by different investigators is because of the differences in the varieties of Arjuna. One investigator reported that the bark contained tannin including glucotannic acid 15%, a coloring matter, a glucosidal body and ash 34% containing sodium, pure calcium carbonates and traces of alkaline chlorides and traces of alkaline chlorides.
Other researchers reported that they could not find any alkaloid or glucoside in the bark. There was no substance of the nature of an essential oil. It contained unusually, large quantities of calcium salts with small amounts of aluminum and magnesium salts; about 12% of tannins, consisting mainly pyrocatechol tanning; an organic acid with a high melting point and a phytosterol; an organic ester easily-hydrolyzed by mineral acids; some--coloring matters, and sugars, etc.
The root contains:
bullet coloring matter
bullet a body of the nature of a glucoside and
bullet carbonates of calcium and sodium and traces of chlorides of alkali metals.
The total tannin content amounted to 12% and the content of ash to 30%
alterative, astringent, cardiac stimulant, hemostatic, rejuvenative, tonic and lithontriptic.
The bark is used to heal wounds. It is also used in heart-disease, contusions, and fractures. Juice of leaves used in ear-aches.
Best herb for heart disease (prevents and helps in the recovery of), angina and heals heart tissue scars after surgery.
Also useful for bile, edema, fractures, broken bones, diarrhea, malabsorption, and venereal disease. External treatment for ulcers, acne, skin disorders.
Arjuna bark is used in the form of decoction (1 in 10) in doses of half to one ounce in hemorrhages and other fluxes. also in diarrhea, dysentery and sprue. It is also useful in bilious affections ,and as an antidote to poisons. It is used as a remedy for scorpion-sting.
For Heart Diseases
Arjuna Heart Tonic is a decoction is highly recommended by Ayurveda physicians in heart diseases complicated with endocarditis, mitral regurgitation, pericarditis, angina, etc. It is prescribed for all sorts of conditions of cardiac failure and dropsy. The tonic made from bark is believed to have a stimulant effect on the heart.
For Fractures and Wound Healing
For treatment of haemoptysis
Combine pulverized Arjuna bark with equal quantity of pulverized red sandalwood, sugar and rice water. Take this internally.
For ulcers, sores, and skin diseases
Arjuna leaves are used for covering ulcers and sores externally. An ointment prepared with Arjuna bark and honey is useful in acne.
For spematorrhoea and in gonorrhea
Prepare a decoction from Arjuna bark and white sandalwood. Take this is for treating spematorrhoea and gonorrhea.
Soak powdered Arjuna bark in the leaf-juice of Adhatoda vasika. Dry. Repeat this process seven times. Add honey, sugar-candy and cow's ghee. Mix well. Take this for phthisis. It stops the blood in the sputum and clears up the sores and cures them.
No information is available.
Heart disease is a very serious disease. Do not take this herb without the supervision of a qualified professional.T
Artichokes Health Benefits
Even though they're not normally the fare of most families, the health benefits of artichokes may soon change that. Artichokes are a bit tricky to cook and unless you've experienced eating artichoke leaves, a bit difficult to eat also. Most people don't have the experience with the vegetable but new studies may entice them to give artichokes a chance to find place on their table.
If you're drinking a glass of red wine every evening and chomping on chocolate because you've heard that they contain antioxidant, then whip up some dip and steam an artichoke to top off your fare. Artichokes contain more antioxidants than either does and it has other redeeming qualities besides its antioxidant content.
Artichokes are packed with vitamins and minerals too. They contain magnesium, which works with calcium to create strong bones and teeth. Magnesium is also necessary regulating the body temperature. Artichokes contain potassium. In fact, a medium sized artichoke has almost as much potassium as a small banana. Potassium is necessary to maintain your heart rhythm, nerve function, fluid balance and muscle. Artichokes are also a great source for vitamin C, beneficial for the immune system and building collagen. It also is a source of dietary fiber. Besides giving your system a thorough cleansing, fiber makes you feel full so you don't eat so much and stabilizes your blood sugar besides. If you're a vegetarian or simply don't want so much animal protein in your diet, consider having an artichoke for lunch. It contains an abundant amount of plant protein.
Scientists also discovered the artichoke has the ability to help lower cholesterol. They believe that the phytonutrients in the artichoke slows the body's ability to create it's own cholesterol. The fiber and photonutrients help in the elimination of cholesterol and may even alter the genes that create a tendency toward high cholesterol. Eating artichokes doesn't just lower your cholesterol; it lowers the bad cholesterol and raises the good, HDL, cholesterol.
Other studies show that the components of artichokes may be helpful in fighting cancer. Queretin, a flavanoid in the artichoke protects you from cancer and also heart disease. The artichoke also contains rutin another flavanoid that is involved in preventing rapid cell proliferation. Cell proliferation is the doubling of cells. In cancer, if left unchecked, the cells divide and grow uncontrolled and beyond their normal area. The luteolin and cynarin, polyphenol antioxidants, might also be the reason that eating artichokes lowers your cholesterol. It also contains caffec acid and chlorogenic acid, two more cancer fighters that have anti-viral properties and lowers the bad cholesterol.
In the plant world, the color pigment often gives some of the best protection for our bodies. Artichokes are no different. The pigment, anthocyanin, which gives the artichoke its color, also gives you powerful antioxidants when you eat it. While studies are still incomplete, scientists believe the anthocyanin may lower your risk of losing memory function, help prevent some cancers and improve your urinary tract health.
If you've never prepared an artichoke before, it's very simple. Cut away the thorns, a few of the bottom leaves, cut ¾ of an inch of the top and leave only an inch of stem. Steam it above water containing garlic, lemon and a bay leaf for about 40 minutes. Pull off each succulent leaf and dip it in your favorite dip and slide the inside edge over you bottom teeth to remove the flesh. When you're done with the leaves, you're not done with the artichoke. There's a coke, a fuzzy inedible part, which covers the artichoke heart. Scrape it out and enjoy the best part of the artichoke, the heart. You'll find that the health benefits of the artichoke can taste pretty yummy when you add artichokes to your next meal.
Biological Name: Withania Somnifera, Physalis flexuosa
Other Names: Ashwagandha, winter cherry, Ashgandh, Achuvagandi, Amikkira-gadday, Amkulang-kalang, Amukkira-kilzhangu, Amukran-kizhangu, Asagandha, Asana, Asgandh, Asundha, Asvagandhi, Fatarfoda, Hirimaddina-gadday, Hirre- gadday, Penneroo-gadda, Pevette, Sogade-beru
This herb is used for 4000 years plus in India. It is a very important herb in ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine. It is used for tumors, inflammation (including arthritis), and a wide range of infectious diseases. The shoots and seeds are also used as food and to thicken milk in India.
Traditional uses of ashwagandha among tribal peoples in Africa include fevers and inflammatory conditions. Ashwagandha is frequently a constituent of Ayurvedic formulas, including a relatively common one known as shilajit.
A native of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, Aswagandha is an important herb used in Ayurveda. The name comes from the peculiar odor of this herb, smell akin to that of a sweaty horse.
Aswagandha is an erect branched shrub with a greenish or lurid yellow flowers. Aswagandha in India is akin to ginseng in other parts of the orient. Both are touted for their longevity enhancing and sexually stimulating properties.
Parts Used: Root
alkaloids and withanoloids
Compounds known as withanolides are believed to account for the multiple medicinal applications of ashwagandha. These molecules are steroidal and bear a resemblance, both in their action and appearance, to the active constituents of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) known as ginsenosides. (Some people do call ashwagandha as “Indian ginseng”.)
Generally, ashwagandha stimulates the immune system. It has also been shown to inhibit inflammation and improve memory. Taken together, these actions support the traditional reputation of ashwagandha as a tonic or adaptogen. It counteracts the effects of stress and generally promote wellness.
alterative, aphrodisiac, astringent, nervine, rejuvenative, sedative, tonic
Seeds possess the property of coagulating milk, but they also contain poisonous properties. Leaves and root are narcotic. Root is diuretic and deobstruent, tonic, alterative and aphrodisiac.
Known as Indian ginseng, this herb builds marrow and semen, and inhibits aging. It is one of the best herbs for the mind (clarity, nurturing).
cancer- for general strength during and after chemotherapy
HIV support, AIDS
immune system problems
mental function, clarity
muscle energy loss
nerve exhaustion, overwork, fatigue
rheumatism, rheumatic swellings
sexual debility, infertility, builds semen
women's health - stabilizes fetus, regenerates hormones
Action & Uses in Ayurveda & Siddha
Tikta, kashaya rasam ushna veeryam, katu vipakam, kapha vata haram.
Indications: Vranam, visham, aphrodisiac, strength giving, complexion improved, in kasam, swasam, soola, pandu, white leprosy, pruritis, karappan, fatigue
Action & Uses in Unani
cough, asthma, uterine diseases, expels balgham and souda, aphrodisiac, puerperal tonic.
Here are some applications of this herb from western herbals:
Mental Problems Improved:
This is perhaps one of the most promising applications of this herb. In a reported study, this herb was given to 30 mental patients suffering from anxiety neurosis in doses of 40 ml/day. (in two equally divided doses.) for one month. At the end of the month, most of the anxiety disorders, panic attacks and similar mood phobias, had disappeared. In trials by American psychiatrists, this herb had been found useful for the treatment of manic depression, alcoholic paranoia, and schizophrenia. Up to 4 capsules were given daily, in between meals, for 45-60 days with very good results. Learning enhancement and memory retention had improved substantially when aswagandha (3 capsules), gotu kola (2 capsules), and ginkgo biloba (2 capsules) were taken regularly on a daily basis.
Anti-Tumor, Anti-Inflammatory Effects Noticed:
Studies with rats and human volunteers have shown that ashwagandha is helpful in putting cancer tumors into regression (used as an alcoholic root extract) and in reducing inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The plant's high steroid content was found to be more potent than hydrocortisone in animal and human arthritis. (Use 3000 to 6000 mg of the root powder or 500 mg 3 times daily of the alcoholic extract.)
Root and bitter leaves are used as a hypnotic in alcoholism and emphysematous dyspnoea.
Root is used in doses of about 30 grains in consumption, emaciation of children, senile debility, rheumatism, in all cases of general debility, nervous exhaustion, brain-fag, low of memory, loss of muscular energy and spermator rhoea. It infuses fresh energy and vigor in a system worn out owing to any constitutional disease like syphilis, rheumatic fever etc., or from over-work and thus prevents premature decay.
Powder of the root mixed with ghee and honey in equal parts is prescribed for impotence or seminal debility. Take it in the evening, with milk.
Leaves are used as an anthelmintic and as an application to carbuncles.
Fruits or seeds are used as diuretic, and to coagulate milk.
Root is used as an application in obstinate ulcers and rheumatic swellings.
Specific Ayurvedic Remedies
As nutrient and health restorative
A decoction of ashvagandha root is useful as nutrient and health restorative to the pregnant and old people. You can also take its powder with milk as an alternative.
Ashvagandha Ghrita promotes the nutrition and strength of children. For improving the nutrition of weak children, give this for a fortnight
For curing the sterility of women, Ayurveda practitioners often prescribe a boiled down decoction of ashvagandha, milk and ghee. Take this for a few days, soon after the menstrual period.
For spermatorrhoea, loss of strength etc., a powder consisting of Asvagandha, sugar, ghee, honey and long pepper is often given daily, with milk and rice diet.
Ashvagzndha root taken with milk or clarified butter acts as an aphrodisiac and restorative to old men. Ashvagandha - Vidari Combination is a herbal remedy for this condition.
Ashvagandha Herbal Invigorator is useful for consumption, seminal debility, and to help the nutrition of weak children.
For lumbago, pains
The powder of Aswagandha and sugarcandy, in ghee is often prescribed for lumbago, pains in the loins or small of the back.
Fresh green root of Asvagandha reduced to paste with cow's urine or with water heated applied to the parts affected is useful for scrofulous and other glandular swellings.
Narayana Taila, an Ayurvedic herbal remedy containing Aswagandha, is useful for consumption, emaciation of children and rheumatism and as an enema in dysentery and anal fistulae.
A ghrita prepared with a decoction and paste of ashwagandha root is used internally and an oil prepared with a decoction of the root and a number of aromatic substances in the form of a paste is used externally for rheumatism.
For skin diseases:
Apply Ashvagandha powder well mixed with oil to the skin.
For improving eyesight:
Take a mixture of Ashvagandha powder, liquorice powder and juice of emblic myrobalans.
Apply drops into the nose in deafness, and as an inunction over the body in hemiplegia, tetanus, rheumatism, and lumbago.
Use a decoction of the roots of Ashvagandha, Batatas paniculata and liquorice, with cow's milk as a gatactagogue.
Preparation: Decoctions, ghee, oil, powder (1/4-3 tsp.) herbal wine
For cancer and other serious illness, use one or more ounces daily.
Some experts recommend 1–2 grams of the whole herb, taken each day in capsule or tea form.
To prepare a tea, ashwagandha roots are boiled for 15 minutes and cooled; 3 cups (750 ml) should be drunk daily. Tincture or fluid extracts can be used in the amount of 2–4 ml three times per day.
Do not take if congested. No significant side effects have been reported with ashwagandha.
The herb has been used safely by children in India. Its safety during pregnancy and lactation are unknown.
Consult a physician before using this herb for serious illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. No proof of its effectiveness is known for these uses at this time.