bone Diseases and Disorders
The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. they interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells.
Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the body’s joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from overactivity of an arm or leg.
Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether.
A sprain is an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint. Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments. A sprain is usually extremely painful. The injured part often swells and turns black and blue.
A fracture is a broken bone. These are some common kinds of fractures:
Spina bifida is a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it. Spina bifida results from an error in the development of the embryo that occurs about a month after a woman becomes pregnant. This error may have various causes, including the use of alcohol or certain medications by the pregnant woman or exposure to extreme heat. Genetic factors appear to be very important.
Scurvy is a disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. If a person does not get enough vitamin C, any wound he or she might have heals poorly. The person also bruises easily. The mouth and gums become sore. The gums bleed, and the teeth may become loose. Patients lose their appetite, their joints become sore, and they become restless.
There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, occurs when a joint wears out. Many elderly people have osteoarthritis, and the disease may also occur if a joint has been injured many times. The joints most frequently affected are those of the hands, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.
Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve of the spine. This condition becomes apparent during adolescence. It is unknown why Scoliosis affects more girls than boys.
Talipes equinovarus, often called clubfoot is an abnormal condition of the foot, usually present at birth. The foot is bent downward and inward so that the person can walk only on the toes and on the outside of the foot. Sometimes the foot is bent upward and outward so that the person can use only the heel for walking.
Tendinitis is a disorder involving stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints. It is often called rheumatism.
Kyphosis, also called hunchback is a forward bending of the spine. Kyphosis is caused by any condition that deforms the bones of the upper part of the spine so that the person is bent forward. Diseases that cause kyphosis include tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Poliomyelitis, also called polio, is a serious infection caused by a virus. A polio virus may attack the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis. Some patients show only mild symptoms, such as fever, headache, sore throat, and vomiting. Symptoms may disappear after about a day.